Although mothers tried desperately to hide and protect their children, few as young as this child, tattooed with the number 23141, survived Auschwitz. In the concentration camps, work provided the only hope of survival, a possibility foreclosed to the very young and the elderly. As Auschwitz moved into its final, extermination-camp phase, some children, especially twins, escaped the gas chambers upon arrival only to be subjected to cruel medical experiments. I feel grief reading this tragedy.